• Sexual pheromones

    The sexual pheromones are used mainly for the monitoring or management of the flying of the specie, as well as sexual confusion techniques.

    The monitoring is one of the main pillars of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs and provides us very useful information about the following points: 

    1. The insect identity identification and/or confirmation.

    2. The infestation level valuation.

    3. The monitoring of the Populations levels in the crops and warehouses (flight curves determination).

    4. Determining the moment to realize phytosanitary treatments, when these want to be done, in order to avoid unnecessary treatments and choose the optimum moment to achieve them.

    5. Valuation of the effectivity on the management techniques that are being used, whether they are treatments by phytosanitary products or managements techniques by pheromones, just as the sexual confusion techniques.

  • Aggregation pheromones

    They are the ones that the beings use to approach and group together forming colonies.

    In contrast with sexual pheromones, they attract both females and males, so they are very useful in mass trapping management programs. The curculonidae have a great economic importance. 

  • Parapheromones

    They are not actually pheromones but act like them: they are synthetic products related with the specie pheromones; they attract one of the sexes, mainly the males.

    They can be used in surveillance programs (monitoring) and in mass trapping.